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James I ascended the throne of England and brought it into personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland. Despite the Union of the Crowns , the kingdoms remained separate and independent states: The Stuart kings overestimated the power of the English monarchy, and were cast down by Parliament in and In the first instance, Charles I 's introduction of new forms of taxation in defiance of Parliament led to the English Civil War —45 , in which the king was defeated, and to the abolition of the monarchy under Oliver Cromwell during the interregnum of — Henceforth, the monarch could reign only at the will of Parliament.
The monarchy and the House of Lords were abolished, and so the House of Commons became a unitary legislative chamber with a new body, the Council of State becoming the executive.
However the Army remain the dominant institution in the new republic and the most prominent general was Oliver Cromwell.
The Commonwealth fought wars in Ireland and Scotland which were subdued and placed under Commonwealth military occupation.
In April Cromwell and the other Grandees of the New Model Army , frustrated with the members of the Rump Parliament who would not pass legislation to dissolve the Rump and to allow a new more representative parliament to be elected, stopped the Rumps session by force of arms and declared the Rump dissolved.
After an experiment with a Nominated Assembly Barebone's Parliament , the Grandees in the Army, through the Council of State imposed a new constitutional arrangement under a written constitution called the Instrument of Government.
Under the Instrument of Government executive power lay with a Lord Protector an office be held for life of the incumbent and there were to be triennial Parliaments, with each sitting for at least five months.
The Instrument of Government was replaced by a second constitution the Humble Petition and Advice under which the Lord Protector could nominate his successor.
Cromwell nominated his son Richard who became Lord Protector on the death of Oliver on 3 September Richard proved to be ineffectual and was unable to maintain his rule.
He resigned his title and retired into obscurity. The Rump Parliament was recalled and there was a second period where the executive power lay with the Council of state.
But this restoration of Commonwealth rule similar to that before the Protectorate, proved to be unstable, and the exiled claimant, Charles II , was restored to the throne in Following the Restoration of the monarchy in , an attempt by James II to reintroduce Roman Catholicism—a century after its suppression by the Tudors—led to the Glorious Revolution of , in which he was deposed by Parliament.
In the Scottish case, the attractions were partly financial and partly to do with removing English trade sanctions put in place through the Alien Act The English were more anxious about the royal succession.
The death of William III in had led to the accession of his sister-in-law Anne to the thrones of England and Scotland, but her only surviving child had died in , and the English Act of Settlement had given the succession to the English crown to the Protestant House of Hanover.
Securing the same succession in Scotland became the primary object of English strategic thinking towards Scotland.
By , the Union of the Crowns was in crisis, with the Scottish Act of Security allowing for the Scottish Parliament to choose a different monarch, which could in turn lead to an independent foreign policy during a major European war.
The English establishment did not wish to risk a Stuart on the Scottish throne, nor the possibility of a Scottish military alliance with another power.
A Treaty of Union was agreed on 22 July , and following the Acts of Union of , which created the Kingdom of Great Britain , the independence of the kingdoms of England and Scotland came to an end on 1 May The Acts of Union created a customs union and monetary union and provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Acts would "cease and become void".
At this point England ceased to exist as a separate political entity, and since then has had no national government. The laws of England were unaffected, with the legal jurisdiction continuing to be that of England and Wales , while Scotland continued to have its own laws and law courts.
The counties of England were established for administration by the Normans , in most cases based on earlier shires established by the Anglo-Saxons.
They ceased to be used for administration only with the creation of the administrative counties in Unlike the partly self-governing boroughs that covered urban areas, the counties of medieval England existed primarily as a means of enforcing central government power, enabling monarchs to exercise control over local areas through their chosen representatives — originally Sheriffs and later the Lord Lieutenants — and their subordinate Justices of the Peace.
The last such, the County Palatine of Durham , did not lose this special status until the 19th century. Although all of England was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, some counties were formed considerably later, up to the 16th century.
Because of their differing origins the counties varied considerably in size. The county boundaries were fairly static between the 16th century Laws in Wales acts and the Local Government Act The power of the feudal barons to control their landholding was considerably weakened in by the statute of Quia Emptores.
Feudal baronies became perhaps obsolete but not extinct on the abolition of feudal tenure during the Civil War , as confirmed by the Tenures Abolition Act passed under the Restoration which took away Knights service and other legal rights.
Tenure by knight-service was abolished and discharged and the lands covered by such tenures, including once-feudal baronies, were henceforth held by socage i.
The English Fitzwalter Case in ruled that barony by tenure had been discontinued for many years and any claims to a peerage on such basis, meaning a right to sit in the House of Lords , were not to be revived, nor any right of succession based on them.
It assumed the lands held by the Princes of Gwynedd under the title " Prince of Wales " as legally part of the lands of England, and established shire counties on the English model over those areas.
The Marcher Lords were progressively tied to the English kings by the grants of lands and lordships in England. It was abolished in The Acts had the effect of annexing Wales to England and creating a single state and legal jurisdiction, commonly referred to as England and Wales.
At the same time the Council of Wales was created in , a Council of the North was set up for the northern counties of England.
After falling into disuse, it was re-established in and abolished in A very short-lived Council of the West also existed for the West Country between and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the state that existed from the 10th century to For the country in its current form, see England.
English [nb 1] Old Norse until 11th century Welsh [nb 2] Cornish [nb 3] Cumbric until 11th century Anglo-Norman 11th—15th century Medieval Latin until 15th century [nb 4].
Part of a series on the. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language.
By city or town. Norman conquest of England. England in the High Middle Ages. England in the Late Middle Ages. Wars of the Roses and Hundred Years' War.
Tudor period , Elizabethan era , Stuart period , and English Renaissance. Early modern Britain and Stuart period. Restoration England and Glorious Revolution.
Historic counties of England , List of earldoms , Domesday Book , County palatine , English county histories , and English feudal barony.
The Shaping of a City , " Mayhew and Walter W. Favre, — , dans du Cange, et al. This electronic edition is a collation of material from nine diverse extant versions of the Chronicle.
It contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the Everyman edition. Retrieved 19 October Counties are geographic entities whose origins reach back into the pre-Conquest period.
They were derived either from Anglo-Saxon kingdoms whose size made them suitable administrative units when England was unified in the tenth century, or as artificial creations formed from larger kingdoms.
The number of 'shires' the Anglo-Saxon term or 'counties' Norman term varied in the medieval period, particularly in the north of England.
Local Government in Britain Since Local Government in Britain. England under the Norman and Angevin kings: The Reign of Elizabeth, , scholarly survey.
Methuen, , scholarly survey Ellis, Steven G. Ireland in the age of the Tudors, English expansion and the end of Gaelic rule Routledge, England Oxford UP, , scholarly survey.
Elizabeth the Great Time Incorporated, Wales and the Tudor state: The heart and stomach of a king: Elizabeth I and the politics of sex and power U of Pennsylvania Press, England Wiley-Blackwell, Power in Tudor England Elizabeth I , a major scholarly biography McKisack, May.
Henry VIII , biography. David Roberts, and Douglas Bisson. A History of England, Volume 1: Prehistory to Routledge, Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century.
The Laws in Wales Acts — then consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them fully into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, and so in Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act.
This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales and Berwick.
The Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in , although the statutory definition of "England" it created by that Act still applies for laws passed before In new legislation since , what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions.
England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England.
The continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union , and as a consequence English law—and after , Irish law —continued to be separate.
Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, and generally the effect of laws, where restricted, was originally applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England and vice versa , a practice which was rare before the middle of the 20th century.
Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May , the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it.
Following a referendum on 3 March , the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster.
This was the first time in almost years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly.
For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales or in Wales , in Scotland or in Northern Ireland",  which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf , rather than Limited or Ltd.
Outside the legal system, the position is mixed. Some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate.
The order of precedence in England and Wales is distinct from those of Northern Ireland and Scotland, and from Commonwealth realms.
The national parks of England and Wales have a distinctive legislative framework and history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cymru a Lloegr England and Wales.
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